Very Dark Chocolate – MadisonPaleo Taste and Tell

Mmmm... chocolate.

One of the most common “cheats” people sneak into the paleo diet is dark chocolate. When very pure (85% cacao, and ideally no dairy or soy) it’s arguably pretty harmless and may offer antioxidant and other benefits.  But with so many choices out there, which is best? Never fear; I’ve accepted the burden of doing some of the sifting and winnowing for you. Thank me later.

I think the ideal chocolate bar is 90-95% cacao, with a little sugar, cocoa butter, and maybe a touch of vanilla. No milk solids, soy lecithin, or anything else. Whether you invite nuts to the party is up to you. You might choose to award bonus points for organic, fair trade, domestic, or whatever satisfies your personal proclivities. For this comparison, I’ll be primarily looking at taste and purity.

Lindt Excellence 90% chocolate bar

Of the ten bars I tested for this article, my overall favorite is Lindt Excellence 90% Cocoa Supreme Dark. I agree with its “Deliciously intense, Surprisingly balanced” tag line, and I’m quite impressed by the smooth texture and lack of burnt or bitter notes present in even 85% blends from most other brands. Though there is a warning that it may contain traces of peanuts, soy, tree nuts or milk, listed ingredients are only: chocolate, cocoa butter, cocoa powder processed with alkali, sugar, and bourbon vanilla beans. A 40 gram serving has 240 calories, 22 grams of fat, 12 grams of carbohydrate of which 3 grams are sugars.

Blackout, Lindt 85%, Green and Black's

Some notable runners up, fine choices all, include Alter Eco Dark Blackout, Lindt Excellence 85% Cocoa Extra Dark, and Green & Black’s Dark 85%. Lindt again wins the taste profile in my opinion, as I found the Alter Eco slightly burnt tasting and the G&B a tad sour. Note that all of these taste elements are both subjective- and subject to change with different batches.  Also note that the bitterness of less-processed cocoa often indicates greater presence of beneficial compounds.  Unlike Lindt, the Alter Eco and Green & Black’s (actually a Kraft Foods brand) both claim organic and fair trade status. The Blackout bar lists cocoa liquor as its first ingredient, rather than chocolate. I wonder if this explains its unusually high iron content of 39% per 40 gram serving, vs. 25% for Lindt and only 6% for G&B. Other macronutrient numbers are about as you’d expect from an 85% chocolate bar. (See table.)

The next tier includes Ghirardelli Intense Dark Midnight Reverie 86% Cacao, Endangered Species 88% Dark Chocolate, and Equal Exchange 80% Extra Dark Panama Chocolate. I would consider these decent “second choices” but not worth seeking out on their own. The first because it contains milk fat and soy lecithin, the second soy lecithin only, and the third because it’s only 80% cacao. The Endangered Species is, however, specifically labeled gluten free (though I suspect most chocolate actually is anyway) and the Equal Exchange is organic. The Panama bar is also made with chocolate liquor and interestingly has a higher (35% in 37 grams) iron content. I’m not sure if it was this ingredient choice or simply slightly higher sugar content that made it the least bitter tasting of the three.

The bottom tier (for now– expect this article to be expanded and revised in the future as I force myself to continue taste testing) didn’t quite meet my standards for one reason or another but may be just right for some. Ghirardelli’s Semi-Sweet Premium Baking Bar (as far as I’m concerned any chocolate is “eating” chocolate– ask my wife) is delicious enough, but contains milk fat and soy. I don’t see a cacao percentage listed, but I’m pretty sure it’s south of my 85% target. Similarly, in addition to unnecessary soy the Delish Mid Knight bar from Walgreen’s is a bit too sweet to make the cut at just 70%. I’d like to see them add a soy-free 90% bar to their price-friendly line, to compete with the Lindt offering. Finally, I really wanted to like Lily’s Dark Chocolate bar, proudly non-GMO and sweetened with stevia instead of sugar. The taste and texture were remarkable, and I’m sure the lack of sugar is a dream come true for certain people. However, I can’t consider it even “paleo-ish” when it includes not only milk fat and soy lecithin, but also inulin (a FODMAP that makes my tummy unhappy), dextrin, erythritol, and unspecified “natural flavors.” If they could work their magic without most of this they might shoot to the top of my list.

As I said, everyone’s needs and priorities differ. My opinions are offered only as a guideline. Below is a table that may help you compare other details from the bars I described. Please be aware that manufacturers often make changes, and I make no assurances that this data will be current when you read it. Do your own delicious homework to verify, and please let me know if you discover something special that I missed!


Lindt Excellence 90%Cocoa Supreme Dark

0-37466-04269-5   (USA)

Chocolate, cocoa butter, cocoa powder processed with alkali, sugar, bourbon vanilla beans

“May contain traces of peanuts, tree nuts, milk, soybean”


Serving Size 40g
Calories 240
Fat Calories 190
Total Fat 22g 34%
Saturated Fat 13g 65%
Total Carbohydrate 12g 4%
Dietary Fiber 5g 20%
Sugars 3g
Iron 15%


Alter Eco Dark Blackout  (85%)

8-17670-01006-8   (Switzerland)

Organically Grown, Fairly Trade Certified, No Soy or Gluten Ingredients, No Emulsifiers, No Artificial Flavors, GMO-Free

Organic cocoa liquor, organic cocoa butter, organic raw cane sugar, organic vanilla

“Made on equipment shared with milk, hazelnuts, almonds and soy”


Serving Size 40g
Calories 240
Fat Calories 190
Total Fat 21g 33%
Saturated Fat 13g 55%
Total Carbohydrate 14g 5%
Dietary Fiber 5g 19%
Sugars 6g
Iron 39%


Lindt Excellence 85% Cocoa Extra Dark  85%

0-37466-01645-0   (USA)

Chocolate, cocoa powder, cocoa butter, demerara sugar, bourbon vanilla beans

“May contain traces of peanuts, tree nuts, milk, soybean”


Serving Size 40g
Calories 230
Fat Calories 170
Total Fat 18g 28%
Saturated Fat 11g 55%
Total Carbohydrate 15g 5%
Dietary Fiber 6g 24%
Sugars 5g
Iron 25%


Green & Black’s Dark 85%

7-08656-10041-8   (Poland)

Fair Trade, Certified Organic

Organic chocolate, organic cocoa butter, organic raw cane sugar, organic vanilla extract

“Manufactured on equipment that processes milk, soy, tree nuts”


Serving Size 40g
Calories 250
Fat Calories 180
Total Fat 20g 30%
Saturated Fat 12g 60%
Total Carbohydrate 15g 5%
Dietary Fiber 4g 16%
Sugars 8g
Iron 6%


Ghirardelli Midnight Reverie 86% Cacao Intense Dark

7-47599-60725-7   (USA)

Bittersweet chocolate (unsweetened chocolate, cocoa butter, sugar, milk fat, soy lecithin – an emulsifier), vanilla, natural flavor

“May contain tree nuts and milk”


Serving Size 45g
Calories 250
Fat Calories 220
Total Fat 25 38
Saturated Fat 15 74
Total Carbohydrate 15 5
Dietary Fiber 5 20
Sugars 5
Iron 25


7-45998-90308-6   (Switzerland)

Certified Organic, Fair Trade Certified

Organic chocolate liquor, organic raw cane sugar, organic cocoa butter, organic ground vanilla beans

“May contain traces of milk, peanuts, hazelnuts, almonds, cashews, pistachios & pecans”


Serving Size 37g
Calories 220
Fat Calories 160
Total Fat 18g 27%
Saturated Fat 11g 54%
Total Carbohydrate 14g 5%
Dietary Fiber 5g 19%
Sugars 7g
Iron 35%


Endangered Species 88% Cocoa Dark Chocolate

0-37014-24247-8   (USA)

Certified Gluten-Free

Bittersweet chocolate (chocolate liquor, unbleached water-filtered beet sugar, soy lecithin, vanilla

 “Produced on equipment that also processes product containing milk, peanuts and tree nuts.”


Serving Size 43g
Calories 210
Fat Calories 180
Total Fat 20g 31%
Saturated Fat 11g 55%
Total Carbohydrate 17g 6%
Dietary Fiber 6g
Sugars 5g
Iron 15%


7-47599-60098-2   (USA)

Semi-sweet chocolate (sugar, unsweetened chocolate, cocoa butter, milk fat, soy lecithin – an emulsifier, vanilla.)

“May contain tree nuts and milk”


Serving Size 42g
Calories 210
Fat Calories 120
Total Fat 14g 21%
Saturated Fat 8g 41%
Total Carbohydrate 26g 9%
Dietary Fiber 3g 12%
Sugars 20g
Iron 15%


DeLISH 70% Cacao Mid Knight Premium German Dark

0-49022-65287-3   (Germany)

Cocoa Mass, Sugar, Cocoa Butter, Emulsifier: Soy Lecithin, Vanilla Extract

“May contain milk solids as well as traces of hazelnuts, almonds and gluten”


Serving Size 40g
Calories 230
Fat Calories 160
Total Fat 18g 28%
Saturated Fat 11g 56%
Total Carbohydrate 18g 6%
Dietary Fiber 4g 16%
Sugars 13g
Iron 15%


Original Lily’s Dark Chocolate (55%)

8-56481-00300-5   (USA)

No Sugar Added, Non GMO, Sweetened With Stevia, Fair Trade Certified

Unsweetened Chocolate, Inulin, Dextrin (from Non-GMO Corn), Erythritol, Cocoa Butter, Milkfat, Soy Lecithin, Natural Flavors, Stevia Extract, Natural Vanilla

“Made on equipment shared with products containing milk, wheat, peanuts, tree nuts and soy.”


Serving Size 40g
Calories 160
Fat Calories 120
Total Fat 14g 22%
Saturated Fat 9g 46%
Total Carbohydrate 22g 7%
Dietary Fiber 12g 50%
Sugars less than 1g
Erythritol 6g
Iron 30%



Chris Kresser on avoiding toxins

Someone recently asked me to recommend a basic book on Paleo, and I hesitated because it’s hard to single one out as the “best” starting place for everyone. Any of the titles on my books page would be a fair introduction. Had I read this article, though, I’d be tempted to say “start here– then pick a book.” This may be the most concise summary I’ve seen of the top level bullet points. I’m becoming a big fan of Chris Kresser lately, and this is some of his finest work:

Beyond Paleo: Don’t Eat Toxins, by Chris Kresser

Coconut milk now available at Willy Street Coffee/Juice Bar

Willy Street Co-op in Madison now offers So Delicious unsweetened coconut milk as a milk option for smoothies, coffee drinks, etc! While I’d prefer one without carageenan and guar gum (inconvenient for a variety of reasons), this is a big step in the right direction, and one I’m happy to see! Stop at the Co-op and order something with coconut milk today!

Help, the caveman’s coming for dinner!

For many families, falling temperatures signal the approach of treasured holiday celebrations, often involving important food traditions. Thanksgiving is about family, origins, and gratitude for sure. But often it’s just as much about roast turkey and stuffing, mashed potatoes and gravy, and pumpkin pie. Even for those who don’t celebrate Christmas, it’s hard not to associate the aroma of freshly baked cookies with warm, festive feelings. But just as a vegetarian niece may take issue with your Thanksgiving turkey, or an atheist uncle with your Christmas tree, a guest with celiac disease might unwittingly offend Grandma with the unprecedented decline of her famous pecan logs. Then, just when everyone has finally learned to coexist, a new species of selective reveler arrives: the modern day caveman. Eschewing not just one problem food, this rare breed says he doesn’t eat grains, dairy, legumes, refined sugar or starch, or anything artificial. What the heck is this “paleo” diet he follows, and what on earth does that leave for you to feed him?

Paleo eating (sometimes called the caveman diet) is about eating more like our hunter-gatherer ancestors, on the theory that these are the foods best suited to our biology and good health. Pre-agricultural humans ate wild animals and seafood, organic vegetables (there were no other kind), some fruits and nuts. They did not eat significant quantities of grains, dairy or legumes, all of which contain known gut irritants and digestive inhibitors. They didn’t use refined sugars (perhaps occasional honey), starches, salt, or artificial colors, flavors, preservatives, etc. Much has been written about this by others, so I’ll refer you to their books if you want to learn more about the “why.” Paleo isn’t “one size fits all.” There are different flavors and interpretations, and even the experts don’t all agree. At it’s core, paleo means no grains/legumes/dairy/artificial or refined ingredients, and instead: lots of healthy fats, animal proteins and non-starchy vegetables. There is disagreement, though, about how much fruit, how many nuts, or the inclusion of select dairy products. Most plans exclude starchy tubers, especially white potatoes, but some do not. Significantly, some promoters actually encourage up to 15% “cheating”, and exceptions for coffee or occasional alcohol are common.

So if there are all these rules, and even the rule-makers can’t agree, what do you serve to make these people happy? Does it require a whole new menu, or could minimal tweaks suffice? Will other guests revolt if you remove all the “good stuff”? Relax. With a little communication and flexibility, you can probably make everyone happy without adding a lot of extra work to your holiday routine, and you might find that this “ultra-traditional” way of eating isn’t as crazy as it sounds.

First, you must determine what your goal is: Are you creating a 100% paleo meal or just providing options so nobody starves? A good place to start might be to get a feel for which “flavor” of the diet your paleo guest/s follow. If you explain that you’re feeding a diverse crowd and ask what’s really off limits vs. what’s generally avoided but acceptable for a holiday cheat, you may find that the challenge isn’t as great as you thought. In my own case, I’m not going to knowingly eat wheat or anything with gluten. I generally avoid other grains, dairy, white potatoes, legumes, refined sugars, starches, and seed oils (except olive & coconut) but I’ll make some exceptions for something like a holiday dinner. Likewise, I’ll overlook a few (otherwise paleo) foods that I’ve cut down on for possible benefit to a thyroid condition: nightshades like tomatoes and peppers, eggs, and nuts. These guidelines might be completely different for someone else, either more or less restrictive for one or more food groups.

What if this dialogue is impossible or uncomfortable; Is there an “easy” button? Some of the most basic holiday foods are already paleo-friendly, or require only a slight tweak. A centerpiece hunk of animal flesh (turkey, lamb, prime rib, wooly mammoth…) will please stone age diners along with other omnivores – so long as it’s free of any deal breakers. I’d say avoid gluten for sure (check turkey labels) and serve sauces on the side if possible. Basting with butter or sweet sauces is an acceptable cheat for many, but best to ask. Any non-starchy vegetables will be appreciated, preferably plain or cooked in olive or coconut oil. Herbs and spices are generally fine. Sweet potatoes are adored by some; and at least tolerated by most – even ultra low-carbers will often make a holiday exception. Most salads are good to go if you omit croutons & cheese or make optional. Though technically legumes, green beans are generally accepted as vegetables since the seed makes up such a small part.

If you’re feeling adventurous, or you’re cooking for someone who can’t/won’t stray from hardcore paleo, there are a couple ways to proceed. You could build your menu from the bottom up, using simple and obviously paleo foods. This will likely be delicious, but could leave certain holiday expectations unmet for some. If your goal is to come as close to your traditional fare as possible, your best bet is probably to get a basic paleo cookbook like Sarah Fragoso’s Everyday Paleo Family Cookbook which will teach you why certain ingredients are a problem, and demonstrate alternatives with recipes like paleo pumpkin pie.

What about… “functional beverages”? strictly speaking, alcohol isn’t paleo. Here again many make exceptions, usually within certain guidelines. Finding out your “cave person’s” preferences ahead of time will probably make everyone more comfortable. If they truly don’t drink any alcohol, offer club soda. Many however, will drink a bit of wine (especially red) or a simple tequila drink – as the real stuff is made from 100% agave nectar and not grains like most other options. Paleo pioneer Robb Wolf has created what many consider the ultimate paleo-ish mixed drink, the Nor-Cal Margarita. Beer is generally out because it’s made from wheat, though there are gluten free beers made of sorghum or other grains. If you’re more concerned with perking them up than loosening them up, you’ll be happy to know that coffee is a common cheat as well. If not then tea is almost always ok, especially green or herbal. Either way, many will skip the cream and sugar. (I like canned coconut milk in mine, but I don’t expect others to have that on hand.)

“Ok,” I can hear you saying, “stop beating around the bush. This is really all about the dessert. What do I do about the pumpkin pie?” There are several options. Most paleo folks are used to passing on desserts. However, if you want to go to the extra trouble there are numerous alternative recipes out there, many of which are quite delicious – everything from paleo pumpkin pies made with almond flour and coconut milk to custards and more. Increasingly there are commercial options as well. Your guest might have a favorite recipe they’d like to make and bring to share with others who are curious. And of course, some will simply make an exception and eat the damn pie because it’s once a year and that’s how they roll.

Editor’s note: Due to circumstances, this article is being published much later than originally intended, and should be considered a work in progress. You will most likely see an expanded version again in the future. Happy Holidays, whatever yours may be…

Genetic engineering is not paleo

GMOs are so not paleo.  Grok didn’t consciously meddle with the genetics of his food sources through selective breeding, and he certainly didn’t use chemicals or viruses to insert specific genes from one species into another.  The former was born of the age of agriculture, and the latter only within the past generation.  Companies such as Monsanto are working to gain and hold market share by developing and patenting varieties of food crops that produce their own pesticides, or which can survive heavy applications of existing ones (which they also produce) – or which possess various other “desirable” traits.

Is this genetic tinkering harmful?  There is much controversy, but a lot of people think it is. Many nations around the world have banned genetically modified organism (“GMO”) derived foods or greatly restricted their use.  About 50 countries currently require GMO ingredients to be disclosed on product labels.  The United States is not yet among them, but there is a large and growing movement to pass this country’s first GMO labeling law: Proposition 37, “The California Right to Know Genetically Engineered Food Act.”What are the potential risks in growing and eating these foods?  GMOs haven’t ever been proven safe. In a sense, we’re all part of the experiment.  The FDA, for its part, conducts no independent testing of GMOs, saying they are “not substantially different” from non-GMO foods.  I’ve never had a great deal of trust in the FDA, largely due to the “revolving door” between the regulatory agency and the food industry.  A wide variety of interest groups are concerned about a plethora of risks: cancer and other health issues, reduction of global genetic diversity, the creation of super bugs and super weeds, soil degradation, even the private control of entire food groups.

Already most non-organic US corn, soy, cotton and sugar beets (the basis of many sweeteners and additives used in processed foods) are genetically engineered. So is the feed given to many of the animals we eat. In fact, 75 – 85% of the processed food in grocery stores contains unlabeled GMOs.

Opposed to labeling what’s in your food are corporations like Monsanto, Dow, BASF, and food conglomerates like Pepsi and Coca-Cola – who along with others have donated nearly $33 million to defeat Prop 37.  Why?  If the law passes in California, some manufacturers have admitted that it may as well be a national law. They don’t want “this product contains GMOs” on their labels, so they will reformulate their products. If they do it for California (with an economy the size of many small countries) they may as well do it for all of them.  Early voting on Prop 37 begins on October 9. By November 6, this initiative will have passed or failed.

My friends know I’m not one to seek new government regulations or mandatory anything.  I take a pretty strict constitutionalist/libertarian view, preferring to let the free market work and consumers to exercise their power non-coercively.  I don’t think it’s the business of the government to decide what is good or bad for us.  But I do think protection from fraud is a legitimate function of government, and I see the current “marketing” of GMO foods as a massive fraud.  Unless told otherwise, a consumer should be entitled to assume that “tomatoes” are tomatoes as typically understood and found in nature, with roughly the same nutrition profile, allergenic potential, etc.  It should be safe to assume that the tomato’s DNA hasn’t been adulterated with fish genes, for example, or altered to allow the plants to survive massive doses of an herbicide that the seed company also holds the patent for.

I don’t think we should (or need to) ban the development, production, or sale of these products.  I do support the requirement that it be disclosed when food ingredients are so altered.  If you do as well, you can sign this petition asking the FDA to require disclosure of GMO ingredients.  But honestly, California Prop. 37 probably has more hope for success.  Regardless of how much (or little) you choose to ask the government to protect you, I hope you’ll vote first with your dollars and buy foods as close to their natural state as possible.